From emergency response to development
Emergencies as a continuum: forward planning, taking action, preparing for the future.
HI implements development and emergency response programmes in around sixty countries. When a humanitarian disaster occurs in one of these countries, the organisation can rely on its teams already in place and its local partners. In emergency situations their in-depth understanding of the country allows them to conceive our emergency response interventions in collaboration, where relevant, with legitimate and effective national services and partners.
© S. Ahmed / HI
HI implements an emergency response whilst pursuing its development projects as part of a continguum. Since the World Humanitarian Summit (2016) this approach has been known as the humanitarian-development nexus. This coordination between emergency response and development work facilitates the procedures for transitioning and for exiting a crisis, builds the population’s resilience, and enhances the long-term impact
In addition to capacity building and training services provided to local economic actors (such as truck owners and drivers), Atlas Logistique shares its supplier network data and market analyses (catalogs, suppliers, prices, maps, identified hot spots, and security information for the axes ) with the bodies in charge of emergency response in the area or country, to facilitate the continuity of the logistics activities after Atlas Logistique’s withdrawal. This simplifies the transition to the recovery and development phases.
Atlas Logistique also aims to develop logistics vulnerability monitoring capacity in key humanitarian contexts to increase our deployment capacity in crises and advise humanitarian decision makers on strategies that focus on the hardest-to-reach communities.
HI’s MHPSS interventions lay the foundations for an efficient emergency response while building the transition to the recovery and development phases by:
• Providing direct services to restore the capacities of individuals, families, and communities to cope with the crisis
• Identifying and supporting existing resilience mechanisms and resources at the individual, family, community and service levels
• Identifying and supporting local services that could potentially take over from HI after the emergency
• Assessing the national government’s capacities to take over and/or develop other MHPSS services, if relevant.
HI aims to complement its direct services with community-based MHPSS approaches and with capacity-building for existing services. Progressively, and as soon as possible, HI will help existing services providers restore or adapt capacities technically and materially through training, coaching, and material support etc.
HI’s armed violence reduction (AVR) analyses and interventions are adapted to the context. It manages the transitions between emergency, recovery, development and/or chronic crises through:
• Analysis of vulnerabilities, barriers, risks, impacts, contextual environment and stakeholders
• Focusing on the most vulnerable areas and populations affected by conflict
• Reconciling local priorities with national priorities and longer-term development goals
• Defining shared objectives and priorities with other actors and authorities
In recovery phases, Humanitarian Mine Action aims to develop local capacities and raise awareness about the threats of explosive remnants of war (ERW) and remove priority threats among vulnerable communities. This participatory, community-based approach aims to provide support based on an understanding of the different aspects of community mobilization and empowerment, from mapping leadership and management structures to community-based action planning, monitoring and evaluation.
From the recovery to the development phase, HI also implements conflict transformation activities. The goal is to support sustainable strategies to manage risks and improve human security and socio-economic development.
The first objective of humanitarian assistance programmes is to protect and improve the lives of the people in critical situations (conflicts, natural disasters, discrimination…) In principle, the first interventions of Shelter programme focus on coverage of the most basic and immediate needs, while at the same time seeking to reinforce and stabilise the foundations for development in the community, in a way that will reduce or eliminate the risks linked to these vulnerable situations.
Achieving a sustainable system is an issue that must be considered from the outset of the programme’s definition. During the first steps of an emergency the initial response must be quick and effective, and self-reliance is not necessarily an objective. However, once basic needs are met, the evolution of the response must be planned with long-term sustainability in mind.
In order to achieve this, the factors that must be taken into account are:
• Appropriateness of technology and materials employed for the context and the population;
• Quality of design and construction of installations;
• Involvement of communities and local structures to ensure culturally appropriate solutions;
• Capacity building and training (management, maintenance etc.).
To avoid negatively impacting the local health system, HI programming aims to quickly transition from direct provision of services to support for existing rehabilitation services and health authorities.
By supporting the existing rehabilitation services from the beginning, HI is able to move from full direct support (capacity building and material and financial support to allow beneficiaries to receive services for free) to a partial support focused on reinforcing rehabilitation service management and facilitating access for the most vulnerable. This may include setting up equity funds to allow rehabilitation structures to become more autonomous and transition away from HI funding and support.
From the moment HI launches its activities, it works with community members to identify people affected by the crisis and at risk of complications, to repeat key prevention messages and refer them to the necessary rehabilitation and health services. This allows HI to build acceptance within the community and promote understanding of the benefits of rehabilitation. It also allows for the better implementation of community-based rehabilitation and continuum of care.
Finally, HI’s work with key health actors and local authorities (such as the ministry of health) allows us to promote the development of health policies that incorporate essential rehabilitation services.
To avoid negatively impacting the country’s development and economy, HI programming aims to quickly transition from direct provision of services for all people affected by the crisis to specialized services with growing involvement of national and local actors. Teams must plan for this transition from the beginning of the emergency intervention. After the initial emergency response phase, teams should focus on relaunching the market and promoting resilience.
Livelihood activities to relaunch the local market during the recovery phase
• Prioritize cash grants over kit provisions as soon as the market is operational.
• Provide business start-up kits and small grants.
• Implement cash-for-work (such as for small rehabilitation projects of public infrastructure and clearing transport routes for supply chains).
• Provide cash distribution for the most vulnerable if cash-for-work is not accessible.
Livelihood activities to promote resilience during the development phase
• Provide trainings, including vocational and life-, business-, and agricultural skills training.
• Provide opportunities for coaching, mentoring, apprenticeships and internships.
• Provide business start-up kits and small grants.
• Carry out income and supply chain mapping, identify any gaps and implement activities to address them.
• Support small- and medium-sized enterprises
HI addresses barriers to humanitarian aid for the most vulnerable, and implements targeted actions to reduce protection risks and discrimination in the provision of aid.
• Provision of inclusive programs and services
• Advocacy and awareness raising
• Technical support for external actors on inclusive humanitarian action, the identification and reduction of specific protection risks, and the respect of humanitarian principles
From direct provision of a wide range of services for all people affected by the crisis, including host community members to more specialized services with growing involvement of national and local actors partners :
• In emergency and recovery phase, HI ensures inclusive service access for all, including particularly vulnerable and excluded populations.
• In development phase, HI promotes the development of inclusive policies, supports the participation and representation of people with disabilities in civil society, help address the root causes of exclusion on the basis of disability and how it intersects with gender and age.
Photos : © E. Fourt / HI - © P. Sthapit / HI